School librarians can serve an important role in supporting teachers and students as they adjust to new expectations. While I still have a number of questions about the best way to assist teachers as they integrate Informational Text into their lessons, I see a number of opportunities that these authentic texts offer. Check out my Goodreads reviews for a number of Informational Text titles appropriate for middle school children–you may be surprised to see titles you already know and love.
The current shift in American school curriculum to the Common Core State Standards, which place an emphasis on increasing the amount of Informational Text students read as they progress through grade levels, has brought the sometimes-misunderstood genre of Informational Text into the spotlight. The Common Core’s emphasis on Informational Text has generated controversy among teachers and parents who are concerned that students’ personal connection to, and analytical study of, literature will suffer in the wake of an emphasis on a genre they fear consists of instruction manuals and “advocacy journalism” (Stotsky, 2012). These concerns highlight common misunderstandings, or misrepresentations, about what the genre of Informational Text encompasses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the depth and variety of Informational Text as a genre, and to highlight activities that incorporate Informational Text into the middle school library learning environment.
Informational Text is a subset of non-fiction that is unique in purpose, feature, and format. Its primary purpose, whether written to report or to persuade, is to inform the reader about ideas, facts, and principles related to the natural or social world (Duke, 2003, p.17). The features in a work of Informational Text vary according to the purpose and subject of a text, but can include print features such as a glossary, index, or key word guide; visual aids like diagrams, illustrations, maps, and charts; and organizational aids such as bold print, headings, section titles and informational sidebars. Informational Text exists in a number of formats, including print and digital versions of books, magazines, newspapers, essays, correspondence, handouts, brochures, and infographics. Informational Text can be used in the library and the classroom to promote information literacy, provide opportunities for close reading and comparative analysis, and support subject matter content across the curriculum. Additionally, because Informational Text is authentic text, it has the potential to spark meaningful personal connections, as well as provide opportunities for exploration and analysis of literature, culture, and history.
The following suggested activities represent the adaptability of Informational Text to a wide variety of subject area content. Each of these activities employ Informational Text as a generative springboard to encourage close reading, analysis, evaluation, discussion, and reflection of student learning.
Activity 1: Inside-Out Discussion Circle
This activity is adapted from Sharon Kane’s 2008 work Integrating Literature Into the Content Areas (p. 61). Kane suggests placing chairs in two facing concentric circles to set the stage for a dynamic activity that provides students the opportunity to engage in multiple one-on-one discussions.
Description. The teacher-librarian provides each student with a copy of the same informational text and a main question on which to focus and form an opinion, based on textual evidence. Students are then given time to read the text, and subsequently invited to join the circle. Students will share their thoughts and observations about the topic and main question with the person in front of them in the circle. After three minutes of discussion, the students are asked to each move two chairs to the right and begin the discussion anew with the classmate who is now in front of them.
Materials and resources. For this activity, the teacher-librarian will need copies for each student of an informational text on the chosen subject, chairs arranged in two facing concentric circles, and (optional) a bell, maraca, or other noise-maker to signal that it is time for the students to shift to another chair.
Motivational value. This activity provides a platform for students to discuss their own opinions and ideas about a topic with a number of different peers in a one-on-one setting that provides an element of security that will bolster student confidence, thus encouraging student motivation to participate. Student motivation is further encouraged by the student’s freedom to discuss information they found important, as well as the opportunity for all students to be fully engaged during the entire activity.
Activity 2: Student Evaluation Groups
The following activity is inspired by Sharon Kane, who suggests having students evaluate science texts against one another for accuracy in her book Integrating Literature Into the Content Areas (2008, p. 40). The activity has been modified for this paper to illustrate that it is appropriate to use with a variety of subject areas. This activity supports learning about scientific inquiring, analyzing a range of texts, evaluating texts for consistency, and comparing and contrasting values and ideas.
Description. The teacher-librarian divides the students into small groups and asks students to review a number of Informational Texts about the same subject. The students are given the texts, post-it notes, and a chart on which to record basic fact and observations from each text. The students will group the notes on the chart according to facts that are in agreement and disagreement. Students will then investigate the disagreements further and find additional resources that verify or disprove the fact or claim they have culled from the text. Students will then rank their original texts from most to least accurate and present their chart and findings to their peers.
Materials and resources. This activity requires the teacher-librarian to select and have available multiple copies of a small variety of Informational Texts about one topic, and to assemble additional resource texts (print and digital) about that topic. The activity requires post-it notes, markers and a poster board chart (or whiteboard space) for each group.
Motivational value. This activity will prove most motivational to students when the teacher-librarian collaborates with the classroom teacher to choose topics to explore that are both relevant to student interest and classroom subject matter. Students will find being in charge of evaluation motivating and will derive satisfaction from sharing their knowledge and accomplishment with other students.
Activity 3: The Big Idea Infographic
The Big Idea Infographic activity is inspired by Tanny McGregor’s suggestion in Genre Connection: Lessons to Launch Literary and Non-Fiction Texts to spark a connection between art and Informational Text by viewing visual representations of information like those created by information artist, David McCandless (2013, p. 99-100). This activity will challenge students to read, understand, and process information and then to organize and present what they learned in the form of an infographic.
Description. The teacher-librarian will show students examples of data visualization and explore what information those infographics are conveying. Then, the students will choose an Informational Text excerpt from those provided by the teacher-librarian and engage in close reading, making notes and highlighting “big ideas” from the text. Students will then be asked to join other students who read about the same topic to form small groups and discuss the purpose, facts, and main idea of the text. The teacher-librarian will give the groups materials and instruct them to create their own infographic, using the information they have read about and discussed. Students will be allowed time to create their infographic, and then to present to each other, the teacher-librarian, and the teacher at the end of the activity. Once all students have presented, they will share their observations about the process of choosing and representing the information they determined to be important. While I would encourage physically creating an infographic in order to keep all members of the group engaged, students could create a digital infographic like the one included here.
Materials and resources. For this activity, the teacher-librarian will assemble examples of infographics to show on a screen, smartboard, or as posters. The teacher-librarian will also provide copies of a variety of Informational Texts from which students will chose. The activity requires the teacher-librarian to assemble art materials with which the student groups can construct their infographic poster. Suggested materials include the following: poster board, colored pencils, highlighters, colored paper, glue sticks, and scissors.
Motivational value. The opportunities for students to choose their subject matter and to express themselves creatively encourage personal connections that will reinforce relevance, satisfaction, and, in turn, motivation for all students. Although the main purpose of works that fall under the umbrella of Informational Text is to inform, the authentic texts that comprise this genre have the potential to spark powerful personal connections. The examples, annotations, activities, and information included in this paper demonstrate that the genre of Informational Text contains works that not only inform and enrich the investigation of classroom topics across the curriculum, but also have the potential to inspire, as well as to provide valuable opportunities for analysis, evaluation, and critical thinking at all educational levels.
Council of Chief State School Officers. (2012). Key points in English language arts. 2012 Common Core National Standards Initiative.
Duke, N. K., &; Bennett-Armistead, V. S. (2003). Reading & writing informational text in the primary grades. New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources.
Kane, S. (2008). Integrating literature in the content areas: Enhancing adolescent learning & literacy. Scottsdale, Ariz: Holcomb Hathaway, Publishers.
McGregor, T. (2013). Genre connections: Lessons to launch literary and nonfiction texts. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
New York State Education Department. (2013). Selection of Authentic Texts for Common Core Instruction: Guidance and a List of Resources for Text Selection. EngageNY.
Stotsky, S. (December 11, 2012). Common core standards’ devastating impact on literary study and analytical thinking. [Issue brief]. The Heritage Foundation.
You can’t use citation generators–why?? That is awful–we need to prepare kids for the real world. In the real world we use the generators.
It is through practice that we learn. Having students practice assembling citations without the help of a generator facilitates greater understanding of the components of a citation. Tools only work if we know what to put into them–and often, what to put into the correct field. Generators make mistakes. How will you know if your generator is spitting out the correct citation if you don’t know what components you are looking for, what order they belong in, or where to look for the standards? Please, please do not sell your students short by only teaching them how to use the tool that will accomplish the task. Teach them the reason for the task, teach them how to find the information they need to complete the task, teach them to be curious about how to improve the task. Encourage your students to be makers, not users.
American Phychological Theorist David McClelland had a theory about motivation that you are probably familiar with, even if you didn’t know exactly what it was called. The Achievement Motivation Theory is one of those so-simple-yet-so-complex ideas that is easily grasped and multilayered. Simply put, it is the idea that we find intrinsic motivation through three avenues–the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, or the need for power. Being complex creatures, we will find the greatest motivation through our own special blend of these three ingredients, but you are probably already thinking about which of them inspires you the most.
My fellow students and I were asked to think of some advice we could give to other school librarians about how to use what we know about Achievement Motivation in the context of library and information skills instruction. The idea that remained at the forefront of my mind throughout my investigation of Achievement Motivation Theory is that each student will find the greatest satisfaction from their own unique mix of achievement, affiliation, and power, so it is important to offer a variety of opportunities for students to find satisfaction in each area throughout our instruction time with them.
School librarians are in a position to offer new ways of using learning to address achievement motivation. We can leverage information literacy skills and technology that connects with students’ achievement needs while introducing students to new resources and research methods. We can provide opportunities for learners to interact socially with each other in work groups and peer learning groups that meet students’ affiliation needs as well as their learning objectives. Librarians also often provide students with instructions to access school resources from home, which further satisfies students’ affiliation needs. Those social opportunities that address affiliation open the door to peer learning roles and providing students with leadership opportunities in which librarians can help students cultivate positive leadership and peer tutoring experiences that will meet their need to exert influence, or power, over others.
While school librarians should offer opportunities to meet all these needs, I would caution my fellow teacher librarians from trying to evenly “shoehorn” every aspect of Achievement Motivation into every half-hour or hour long information skills lesson. While addressing each aspect is a wonderful goal, sometimes it will be better to provide multiple and varied opportunities to satisfy different motivational needs over a number of lessons, so that we give students more time to engage with the behaviors they find motivationally satisfying.
I would also remind my peers that although our instruction time may be limited, we can offer opportunities through school web sites, after school activities, and, when appropriate, e-mail, chat, or other library social media connections to help students maintain their affiliation with their librarian and library resources even when they aren’t physically in the library.
Are you motivated to learn more about Achievement Motivation Theory? Go to your library and check out McClelland’s book The Achieving Society. Whether or not they have it on the shelf, they can certainly obtain a copy for you.
McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Original Post: Thursday, February 14, 2013 5:44:35 PM EST
This post is an edited, enhanced, and otherwise reworked version of an internal class blog post from a class called Motivating 21st Century Learners at Syracuse University. I am posting a series of these because the topics are close to my heart, they illustrate part of my library school journey, and I believe will get you thinking as they did me. If you are a fellow lover of information, community, and life-long learning–or if you are just wondering what we do in library school–welcome!
I want to be librarian. More precisely, I want to be a library teacher. I love books, but I love people more. I love teaching, and I love the idea that I can give someone the skills they need to find the information they require to create whatever-it-is they want to create. What profession could be better?
As part of our initial exercises for our “Motivating Learners” class, we were asked to share a first-person account of our imagined first day as a new school librarian.
I stand outside the library doors, smiling and saying good morning to wide-eyed fifth graders who mutter their locker combinations or home room numbers so they won’t forget them. I empathize. I am excited and nervous about my first day in a new school too.
Like the incoming fifth graders, I carry my schedule in my pocket and am nervously optimistic about the day ahead. I know what is expected of me but I also know there will be new things for me to pick up as I go. I study the district curriculum maps the way the students study the maps that will help them get to class. From my maps, I know the content and expectations for my role as librarian. I have learned about the curriculum of our subject area middle school teachers as well. I know that continuing to gain understanding of each of our maps will help me to collaborate with them, and to provide complimentary and meaningful content in my instruction.
The students are excited to change rooms and teachers for each of their subjects, and I am excited to collaborate with different teachers to create lessons that are interesting, relevant, and that make the most of my instructional time. In order to for my instruction to be effective, I will need to grab student interest to help them to gain understanding, learn new skills, and develop new avenues of inquiry to pursue. Encouraging and facilitating their involvement is the key to my success in instruction and to their success in learning. I can’t wait to give them the opportunity to connect their own experiences to what they are learning, to practice, to collaborate, to share, to gather, to organize, and to teach what they have learned to their peers. What a wonderful year we all have ahead!
Original Post: Saturday, January 19, 2013